Cannabis (Hemp) can be grown as well as wild. It can reach 1-3 meters in length. Cannabis that rises vertically within 1-2 years is hairy and forks after the half. It is dark green in color and has a long stem. The leaves come out mutually. Its flowers are located on the tops of individual plants or on the tops of branches. The seeds of cannabis are 3-6mm long, grayish brown, blackish brown, greenish-brown colors. Cannabis seeds are very thin-skinned. Cannabis is generally easy to grow. So, do you want to know where cannabis can grow and what are the optional conditions for growing cannabis?
The homeland of cannabis is India. However, cannabis can be grown in almost every region today. This is because the plant does not need many factors to grow. The ideal temperature for growing cannabis is 24-26 C, but after all, Cannabis is a plant that loves warm climates. That’s why hot weather doesn’t affect it badly. The favorite moisture content of cannabis is between 50% and 60%. Apart from this, cannabis, which can grow on almost any soil, can be grown well in alluvial soils, especially soils that are deep plowed, rich in plant-nutrients, pH value between 7-7.5, calcareous, loose, and with a good organic matter ratio. It cannot develop well in heavy and acidic soil. Fiber-type cannabis can be grown without irrigation in areas with high relative humidity, a suitable temperature, and a minimum of 700 mm of rainfall.
Information About Cannabis: Where It Can Grow
Cannabis is a cultivated plant that has been grown for a long time and has been utilized in various ways. Cannabis is a plant that produces fibers from its stems, and its fibers are stronger but coarser than cotton and flax fibers. Twine, rope, canvas cloths, sacks, bags, and pouches are made from these fibers. Cannabis seeds contain 30-38% oil, 25% protein, lecithin, and vitamin K. Its seeds are used in candies. Cookies are made by roasting. It is good bird food. In addition, its oil is used in the production of soft soap, varnish, oil paint, and polish. The pulp remaining after the oil is removed is a good animal feed. Its handles are the raw material of the paper industry and good grade paper is made.
Its stems are also good fuel raw materials. Its calories are half the amount of hard coal. The undesirable aspect is to obtain cannabis, which is an important drug. Despite the government’s prohibition and control, cannabis is smuggled and trafficked. While cannabis used to have an important place among fiber crops, there has been a significant decrease in the cultivation area after World War II. With the introduction of synthetic fibers, hemp has lost its former importance. In addition, the production of cannabis has limited and controlled cultivation. Apart from that, it played an important role in jute, manila, and sisal hemp. The most important producer countries are Russia, China, India, Romania, Hungary, Italy, and Spain.
Cannabis is an annual plant genus belonging to the Cannabaceae family. Being the oldest source of vegetable raw materials in human history, the fibers in its stems are used in yarn, weaving, and fabric production, and the pulp part is used in paper production. Its homeland is Central Asia. It is grown and cultivated in temperate and tropical regions. The species is hard, bushy, hollow stem, palmate leaf, dioecious, and one-year-old. Its fibers are durable and quite long. When lignin material accumulates in the fibers, its flexibility decreases. The fibers of the genus are used in coarse weaving (such as sack, rope bag, net making). Its leaves have usage areas in medicine and cosmetics. Its seed is used as fuel because it is highly oily and as food, because it is highly nutritious. Its seeds are also used in soap making and paint making. Its seeds are one of the favorite food of birds.
Cannabis sativa is the type of the genus used in oil and fiber production. The type used in cannabis production is Cannabis indica. Cannabis is the female sex plant used in cannabis production, and permission must be obtained from the Ministry of Agriculture for cultivation. While the male plant is not used to obtain cannabis, it is not fully specified in the law whether a permit is required for cultivation. Cannabis is a one-year, dichotomous, and herbaceous plant grown in moderate climates, blooming with pale greenish-colored flowers in July-August, cultivated and wild on the roadside and uncultivated areas, 50 cm-3 m tall. It is also known as marijuana. Their bodies are upright and hollow, and they are rough due to prickly hairs.
In the past, the marijuana plant was banned step by step all over the world after the “Marijuana Tax Law” enacted in the USA in the 1930s brought obstacles to its cultivation. It is thought that the prohibition was made by economic and political interest groups, rather than scientifically. One decare of hemp is a woody plant very rich in cellulose, which can provide pulp equivalent to 4 decares of wood. Fibers, on the other hand, were used as a fiber source all over the world before synthetic fibers, a product of the petroleum sub-industry, became common worldwide. Today, most of the pesticides in the world are used in cotton growing, which is used in fiber production. Cannabis is a very potent plant and requires almost no medication.
The interests that lead to banning cannabis are also thought to be linked to the oil and pharmaceutical industry. The substance tetra-hydro-cannabinol (THC), which is concentrated in the upper parts of the unfertilized plant, which is shown as the reason for banning female cannabis, has been used as “cannabis” since humanity and there are many studies published in scientific journals showing that it has medical uses. The active substance does not occur in the female plant, which is in the same environment as the male plant. Today, its use and cultivation have been liberalized in the Netherlands. It can be very addictive in its use.
High relative humidity, a suitable temperature, and a minimum of 700 mm of precipitation are required for fiber-type hemp cultivation. Precipitation requirement is high especially before planting. Since it is sensitive to spring late frosts, it is damaged at temperatures lower than -5 C0. In general, cannabis can grow in all kinds of environmental conditions because of its good adaptability. A development period of at least 5 months not below zero degrees is required for seed production and 4 months for fiber recovery. Drought and high temperatures accelerate development. If there is continuous and excessive moisture in the soil, yellowing occurs on the leaves and the plants are damaged.
Deep plowed, nutrient-rich, neutral soil to weakly alkaline soils in almost all growing areas with a pH = 7-7.5 are particularly suitable. Cannabis grows well in alluvial soils in streams and river beds that are nutrient-rich, calcareous, loose, and not poor in organic matter. As with all summer field crops, the first application is to process the soil deeply in its temper. Deep tillage should be done in the fall in arid regions. Before planting in the spring, light tillage is made in order to remove the weeds on the field and to give the upper soil layer a loose structure. The resulting soil clods are broken by a disc harrow, after which the field soil is made suitable for planting with the equipment that provides the soil leveling.
In cannabis cultivation, high yields can be obtained with the earliest sowing after the spring last frost threat has passed. In general, planting time according to the regions is between March-April. Sowing should be done in row planting with a seeder. Spreading applied by some producers uses more seeds, seeds cannot be reduced to the same depth, and a uniform output cannot be achieved. There are disadvantages such as not applying cultivation techniques such as irrigation, hoeing, spraying, and not being able to use agricultural equipment in the field. For this reason, scattering is not recommended in modern agriculture. When planting in the row, the row spacing applied is 15-25 cm for fiber production and 30-40 cm for seed production. Because dense sowing will increase the fiber quality and sparse sowing will increase the seed yield as it will encourage branching. Sowing depth is 2-3 cm, and planting deeper than 4 cm makes it difficult for the germinating shoots to exit to the soil surface.
In the economic sense, it needs important maintenance works such as hoeing and irrigation in the first development stages for cannabis cultivation. The first hoeing for weed control is when the plants are 5-10 cm tall, and the second hoeing is 25-30 cm. It is made when it is long. In arid regions with insufficient precipitation, irrigation should be done 2-4 times. Since hemp removes more nutrients from the soil, commercial fertilizer application, especially nitrogen fertilizer, should be made in terms of preserving soil fertility. The recommended fertilization in hemp cultivation is to mix the barn manure into the soil in autumn and to support it with nitrogen and phosphorus commercial fertilizers with planting in the spring. 2-4 tons of barn manure per decare is sufficient. As a commercial fertilizer, ammonium sulfate or ammonium nitrate to hit 8-12 kg of nitrogen in pure form and 6-8 kg/da of superphosphate fertilizer should be given to the hectare.
Although cannabis plants can be planted on the same field in a row, crop rotation should be applied in order to increase seed and fiber production and prevent the exploitation of the soil by unilateral nutrients. As it can be planted after every cultivated plant, it is a good pre-plant for every plant. It is in rotation with legumes and grains. It shows a good harmony with other cultivated plants in the region in crop rotation. The maturity cycles of male and female plants in cannabis cause difficulties in cannabis harvesting. Male cannabis reaches harvest maturity shortly after flowering, ie 100 days after planting. Seed maturation of female marijuana is 4 weeks later than the maturation of male plants.
Male cannabis is harvested 5-10 days after an environment resembling a white dust cloud of flower powders is formed. Fiber cannot be obtained as the stems are wooded at the maturity of the seeds hanging down until mid-September. Therefore, only seeds are harvested. Since male and female cannabis will be harvested separately in both seed and fiber production areas, the labor force and costs increase by entering the field twice. However, since hemp cultivation in the world is mostly carried out as family businesses, this difficult harvesting method has found an application area without creating a problem.
Best Conditions for Cannabis to Grow
It is necessary to know all the necessary conditions to grow cannabis. Here you need to know the climate, soil, care harvest, and legal conditions. So let’s start with the climatic conditions in which cannabis will grow.
Cannabis can be grown in many parts of the world. But of course, some conditions are required for healthy growth. For example, it should be a humid environment, for this, there should be at least 700mm of precipitation. Before planting cannabis seeds, it is important that the soil is moist. In temperatures lower than -50C, cannabis seedlings have difficulty holding on to life. That’s why it gets damaged. You have to calculate the temperature accordingly and set the growing time. Cannabis plants need a period of 4 months to grow. The warmer the weather, the faster the development. If there is too much moisture, yellowing occurs on the leaves. Therefore, the necessary conditions must be met.
Soil is also very important in cannabis cultivation. Soils with rich content, soils with a pH value between 7 and 7.5, and deep-plowed soils are very fertile soils for cannabis cultivation. In addition, since the lands in the regions where the streams pass are rich in minerals, the production to be made in these regions will be very efficient.
- Preparation of the Planting Site
As in every planting process, the soil must be made suitable for hemp cultivation. Before the cannabis is planted, the soil must be plowed deeply. In areas where summers are dry, the soil should be plowed deeply in autumn. In the spring, it should be plowed again to clear the weeds and make the soil soft. Large deposits of the soil must be dispersed by crushing and then leveled. Thus, the soil becomes suitable for cannabis cultivation.
- Cannabis Planting
Spring months are preferred for hemp cultivation. Since the cannabis can be damaged by the frosts that occur in the spring, transplantation can be started when the risk of frost disappears. This usually happens in March. It is recommended to use seeders during planting. Thus, it can be planted properly in a row. There are two purposes for planting. Fiber production and seed production. Different conditions are required in each production. When the fiber production is aimed, the gaps should be 20-25 cm, when the seed production is aimed, the intervals should be 30-40 cm. Fiber planting should be done at frequent intervals because the fibers increase in dense planting. In seed sowing, sowing is done sparsely, because it will increase branching and reproduce more seeds. So how many cannabis seeds should be planted on 1 decare (acre)? If seed production is aimed, 4-5 kilograms of seeds should be planted; If fiber production is aimed, 7-9 kilograms of seeds should be planted. What should be the depth of planting? Cannabis seeds should be planted 2-3 cm deep. When it is planted deeper, it will be difficult to get out of the soil.
Care is also important in cannabis production. After the hemp is planted, hoeing and irrigation work needs to be done from time to time. Because it both gets the water it needs and it grows comfortably by getting rid of weeds. When the hemp reaches 5-10 cm in length, the first hoeing can be done. Then, when it reaches 25-30 cm in length, the second hoeing can be done. We said it needs to be watered. However, there may be drought and water shortage in some regions. Therefore, irrigation can be done 3-4 times in these areas. The cannabis plant exploits many nutrients and minerals in the soil. Therefore, fertilization should be done with nitrogenous fertilizers in order for the soil to remain productive. The recommended process in the fertilization process is that natural fertilizer should be mixed with the soil in the soil tillage process in autumn, and the nitrogen-dense fertilizer should be mixed with the soil when hemp is planted in the spring. While 2-3 tons of natural fertilizer is required for each decare in the fertilization process, 10-12 kilograms of artificial fertilizers are sufficient.
Cannabis should be harvested after reaching a certain maturity. Knowing when to harvest will be very beneficial in terms of productivity. There is female and male cannabis. The growing times are different in both species. The male species can be harvested approximately 100 days after the sowing day, while the female species can be harvested 3-4 weeks after the maturity of the males. Therefore, we can say that female species mature later. Male cannabis can be harvested 1 week after a white dust cloud has formed. If too much time passes, the fiber cannot be harvested as the fibers harden. Therefore, the seed is harvested. If both seed and fiber are to be harvested, this will require extra labor and can be costly. Of course, this situation is more noticeable when growing in a large area.
As I have mentioned from the very beginning, hemp is frequently used in the cosmetics industry, pharmaceutical industry, automotive industry, paper, and plastic production, animal food, and textile industry. If it is used properly and correctly, it does not cause any harm to human life or nature. On the contrary, it has benefits. Cannabis cultivation is easy for those who know the business. But it can be challenging for people who have never grown such a plant before. That’s why you need to learn the details about aquaculture. For this, you should do the necessary research and consult the opinions of the people who have experience.
So is cannabis production profitable? Yes, it is very profitable if you can be successful in hemp production and if you can produce harmlessly without encountering negative conditions such as frost or drying. When making cannabis, you should not get caught up in the idea of producing drugs. If you come to such a situation, you will be both prevented from producing hemp and punished. Instead, you can sell the products you produce according to legal requirements. You can sell it to pharmacies or pharmaceutical companies around you. They will also sell to citizens for a variety of treatments as requested by doctors. You can sell it to manufacturing companies producing textile products and companies producing paper. You can also sell it to companies in the automotive industry. Producers will need cannabis.
More Information on Growing Cannabis
Cannabis Sativa is a one-year plant that has been used to make ropes and sacks by separating fiber and fiber stems from ancient times. Its seed is used as bird feed or in oil production. The type used as cannabis of the plant is “Cannabis Indica”. Its leaves are consumed as a drug and oil is obtained from its seed. The male of the cannabis plant planted in April-May is harvested at the end of July and the female is harvested 20-25 days after the male, tied in bunches, and left to dry upright on the soil. The flowers of male cannabis are in the form of clusters, while the flowers of female cannabis are on a single leaflet, in bulk spike. Male cannabis is thinner and shorter than females.
The threads called fibers in the wood part of the plant are yellow to dark yellow or yellow-green. The stems of the harvested hemp are first pooled and the threads are separated from the shell. The fine hemp fibers obtained are used in the yarn industry, while the coarser fibers are directed to the rope industry. Today, we see that China is the largest producer and exporter that uses hemp in the paper and fabric industry in the world. Canada leads the way in cannabis seed products. In addition to being at the forefront of Europe with its use of industrial cannabis, it also benefits from this plant in industries such as automobiles and construction. Again, Germany, England, France, Denmark, Switzerland, Spain, Portugal, and Russia are among the other countries that produce cannabis.
Although America lags behind Canada and China in terms of cannabis production due to changing policies and approaches regarding the production and use of this plant in different periods, it has begun to come to the fore with great R&D and production investments in recent years. Nearly half of the 69 cannabis varieties registered in Europe to date have been developed in the last 10 years, most of them are industrial-type cannabis strains containing a low rate of cannabis active ingredient tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The upper limits of the THC ratio in industrial cannabis are as follows:
European Union: 0.2%
An Environmentally Friendly Raw Material: Cannabis
The seeds, stems, and leaves of cannabis, one of the oldest plants used as raw materials in human history, still have many uses as food, beverage, medicine, cosmetics, personal care, textile, paper, and building materials. On the other hand, while scientific researches indicate that pulp can be obtained from 1 decare of cellulose-rich cannabis production to 4 decares of wood, it is implied that hemp agriculture can be effective in the protection of forests with only this feature. In addition, considering the amount of oxygen it produces, it has been noted that 1 decare of cannabis can produce as much oxygen as 25 decares of a forest.
However, the news coming from countries such as America, which increases their production capacity day by day against the demand in the market, is also a sign that opposite situations may arise from the data shared above if a careful and controlled national policy is not followed. So much so that due to the increasing demand, high yield potential, and ease of production, it is related to the cannabis plant, which is widely cultivated especially in the state of California; There are many reports in the last year that it causes the destruction of forests, strains the water resources based on excessive consumption and endangers the wildlife in the region.
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol), which is one of the two basic chemicals in the cannabis plant, is a psychoactive substance. CBD (Cannabidiol) is a chemical without psychoactive properties. Both of these substances are chemicals that can be evaluated medically under the control of a physician in the correct dosage. While cannabis (Cannabis Indica) used as a drug contains THC in the range of 5% – 20%, this rate is less than 0.3% in industrial purpose cannabis (Cannabis Sativa) as stated above.
Therefore, it is obvious that the controlled production of industrial cannabis will not pose any threat to public health. The only thing that needs to be considered here is the indirect damage that can be caused by the widespread use of production areas, by the malevolent people taking advantage of this situation and producing the species for drug use. As a matter of fact, at this point, selling domestic, certified, and numbered seeds to people who have been granted production permits, and then inspecting random samples taken from the plantation during each production period may help/deter such situations in preventing such situations.
So there is no such thing as a cannabis miracle. When it comes to health, environment, or industry, producing endlessly or deleting a whole plant is not the only answer to our existing problems. With the right national policies; we must produce, use, and manage everything in a balanced way. What excites me the most about cannabis; The plastic packaging that pollutes our seas and forests is a raw material that enables us to produce alternatives that can quickly disappear in nature. In the field of health, in the treatment of diseases such as unbearable painful cancer, drugs produced from cannabis that has reached the stage of clinical application, immediately replace the addictive morphine and derivatives (opioids) that consume the human body.
Benefits of Growing Cannabis
- Industrial hemp is used in paper production. Paper produced from hemp can be recycled much more than paper produced from wood. While wood papers can be used 3 times, hemp papers can be recycled 8 times.
- Cannabis plants are very successful in terms of oxygen production. It produces oxygen intensely. It produces about 25 times more oxygen than trees.
- Cannabis is used in the treatment of many diseases. It is used to minimize the negative effects of chemotherapy and radiation applied in cancer treatments. In addition, it is used in the treatment of many diseases such as asthma, heart, rheumatism, and spine disorders.
- It is given to animals as feed for their healthy development. Thus, animals are much more efficient.
- It is used in automotive production. It significantly increases the durability of vehicles. This is why many firms demand hemp.
- It is used as an insulating material in the construction industry. It is both cheap and durable.
- It is used in plastic production because it is easily dissolved in nature. Thus, it is widely used in environmentally friendly products.
- It is used in personal care products as it does not contaminate water. It is both beneficial for the body and does not harm nature when thrown away.
- It is frequently used in the textile industry. It is widely used especially in the production of jeans. Even the first jeans were made of hemp.
- It is also used in the food industry due to the high protein and harmless oils it contains.
- It grows very quickly. Hemp can be harvested in approximately 4 months. Trees become mature in at least 20 years. You can see how fast it is growing when compared.
- It is used in the production of hemp paper and is 4 times more efficient than paper produced from wood.
- Cannabis is quite cheap to produce.
- Cannabis plants need very little water. With its self-protection feature, it does not need pesticides.
Best Cannabis Growing Equipment You Can Buy Online
- myLumii Smart WiFi Grow Kit, Samsung Full Spectrum LED Grow Light + 1080p HD Camera. Temperature Humidity Sensor & Timer Control by APP. Night Vision Video & Motion Detection for Indoor Grow Tent
- iPower Soil pH Meter, 3-in-1 Soil Test Kit for Moisture, Light & pH for Home and Garden, Lawn, Farm, Plants, Herbs & Gardening Tools, Indoor/Outdoor Plant Care Soil Tester
- Active Gear Guy 8-Layer Enclosed Hanging Mesh Dry Rack for Herbs, Buds, and Fruit with Two Trim Scissors. One Straight Blade and One Curved Blade. for Gardens, Hydroponics, Orchards, and Grow Tents.