C. Sativa is the most common type of cannabis used worldwide today. It is longer and narrower than C. Indica. The leaves are relatively thin and long. The origin of Sativa is Ecuador – Colombia, Mexico, Thailand and Southeast Asia. C. Indica is the second most common cannabis species in the world. Grows at lower altitudes, wider than C: Sativa. It has relatively short and broad leaves. Its origin is the Middle East and Afghanistan and Pakistan region.
Ruderalis is a relatively rare species of Russian origin. It grows relatively continuously and is less affected by the light-dark ratio. It only blooms from the tip and has low levels of psycho-active substance THC. Cannabis Sativa Seed Oil does not contain THC and is not psychoactive. It is very useful for children’s brain development and offers solutions to many health problems. CBD is the most abundant cannabinoid found in cannabis and, unlike THC, is legal and not psychoactive.
Cannabis indica is known as cannabis. The active ingredient of this is THC, namely Tetrahydrocannabinol. Both cannabis and marijuana cannabidiol (CBD) contain non-psychoactive substances. However, THC is a substance that gives users a “high” or psychoactive effect. CBD has many similarities with THC when it comes to potential health benefits, but the main difference is that it is a non-psychoactive substance, so it does not give users a natural value. Furthermore, even when high concentrations of CBD are consumed, it does not cause THC-related anxiety, paranoia or dry mouth and eyes.
Evidence found in the graves of India, Egypt and the ancient Assyrian kings; Even 5,000 years ago, cannabis was used for medical purposes. Ceremonies that took place in India 2700 years ago indicate that a combination of wine and cannabis was used for surgical anesthesia. In China, there is evidence that hemp was used as a painkiller 2000 years ago.
Cannabis plant probably arrived in Europe in the 13th century and was first used in agriculture, clothing, sailing, oil drilling and food products in the 17th century. After the spread of cannabis plants around the world in the 18th century, doctors in the United States began to recommend the use of cannabis for medical purposes against urinary incontinence, venereal diseases, and skin infections. In the UK, hemp was used as a treatment for arthritis and nausea, but it was also used for the treatment of tetanus, cholera, and rabies.
How to Determine Cannabis Degrees
Cannabis plants contain more than 461 different chemical compounds, most of which are in three plant metabolite families: terpenoid, flavonoid, and cannabinoid, the most widely known chemical group. The degree of each species is different. These plant metabolite groups have a number of unique functions related to plant development, protection from insects, openness to pollen sources and the broad spectrum of therapeutic effects on human health.
Terpenoids and flavonoids are components of many plants that make a great contribution to the functioning and development of the plant and contribute to many properties such as smell and taste. In addition, these components are associated with many therapeutic effects. This time, however, no specific effect of any component has been elicited and the mechanisms of action cannot be described.
Phyto-cannabinoids are considered to be pharmacologically active components. It is synthesized in microscopic glandular secretions that accumulate at the extreme point of resinous growth called “trichome”. Trichomes are found in every plant and express themselves in high density in unfertilized female flowers. Cannabinoids accumulate primarily in the pollination area; however, it may also be present at lower concentrations in other plant parts.
These plant cannabinoid groups have more than 100 components specific to the cannabis plant and new compounds emerge as botanical and medical research on the plant and its components are carried out. “Cannabis products for medical use” that are approved for medical use are defined and classified according to the ratio and amount of THC, CBD and CBN cannabinoids.
However, in addition to THC, CBD and CBN, cannabis plants contain dozens of different components and there is less empirical information about the individual pharmacological effects of these components. Genetic, morphological and chemical differences between Sativa and Indica original species are also characterized by specific physiological effects, not just from the concentrations of THC and CBD. Today, it is common to attribute the terms “Sativa character source” and “Indica character source” to the decomposition of a broader genetic source and the effect of “cannabis product” on the patient.
Cannabis Types by Degrees
Cannabis sativa length varies from 2m to 6m. Some cultivars are cultivated as industrial cannabis and have great economic value in this respect. Although it does not matter whether they are winter-resistant, C. Sativa does not like the high altitude mountain climate. 400m-500m altitude elevation and moderate air humidity places are ideal for healthy and efficient development.
Cannabis indica is medium tall and has large leaves. This is the mother of cannabis cultivars of medicinal importance (and suitable for cannabis) (but some cultivars of C. Sativa are also suitable for the same purposes). They develop smoothly even in high altitude mountainous regions.
Cannabis Ruderalis is short, less branched and undersized. This is called wild hemp. They grow spontaneously as natural wild plants in Europe and Asia. The day and night time does not matter for the flowering of this and the cannabis cultivars derived from it have gained importance in cannabis cultivation. Work is continuing on. It is enough to develop adequately for flowering. Others do not bloom during the day when the day lasts too long.
- Cannabis Sativa
Cannabis sativa is a perennial plant of the genus Cannabis, which is used in the production of fiber and oil from the hemp (Cannabaceae) family. The leaves and flower parts of the plant have a special smell. The chemical composition of the resin contains a small amount of essential oil. The resin contains THC and its derivatives. The amount of this compound varies greatly depending on the plant’s growing environment and climate. Fibers used as raw material sources are used in coarse weaving (sacks, rope bags, net making). The fibers are durable and quite long. When lignin accumulates in the fibers, its elasticity decreases.
Female cannabis marijuana seeds and leaves are often used as stimulants or drugs. For this purpose, the flowers and seedbeds of the plant are powdered by fine sieve is called powdered cannabis. A high-quality product (Cannabis) is obtained when the crystal powder with the highest THC content of the plant is taken. When this powder is compacted together with water vapor and temperature, it becomes effective for smoking with tobacco. It is a common form of usage of cannabis.
- Cannabis Indica
Cannabis indica is a perennial plant of the genus Cannabis from the Cannabaceae family of India. Whether Cannabis sativa and C. Indica are truly separate species is controversial. The plant has many uses since it is a source of oil and fiber, medicinal effects and pleasing properties. C. Indica produces large amounts of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) with psychoactive effects. Because of this THC content, it is used as the most common pleasure in comparison to medical and economic use.
- Cannabis Ruderalis
Cannabis Ruderalis is a type of cannabis that is unique to Central and Eastern Europe and Russia with low amounts of THC. Many scientists consider Cannabis Ruderalis to be a distinct species due to its distinct characteristics and phenotype than Cannabis sativa and C. Indica, but there is widespread debate as to whether Ruderalis is a Cannabis sativa subspecies.
Cannabis Ruderalis is smaller than other cannabis species and rarely grows more than 50 cm. Plants show small amounts of branching and have thin, slightly fibrous stems. The plant with large leaves grows much faster compared to other cannabis species and reaches maturity from seed in a period of five to seven weeks.
Cannabis Ruderalis has traditionally been used to treat depression in Russian and Mongolian folk medicine. C Ruderalis is rarely used as an adjuvant because it contains low THC. Unlike other Cannabis species, C. Ruderalis is grown to produce “self-flowering cannabis species” by hybridizing with other Sativa and Indica species, since it changes from vegetative to flowering, depending on the age of the plant rather than seasonal changes and the amount of light it receives. While these hybrid plants exhibit the stability of Ruderalis plants, they are suitable for breeders as they retain the medicinal effects of Sativa and Indica species.
The “automatic flowering” feature is highly desirable because it allows the plants to grow and bloom independently of the seasons, allowing multiple harvests during a growing season.
Differences Between Cannabis Sativa and Cannabis Indica
There are several basic differences between C. Indica and C. Sativa. These are height, leaf size and structure, bud size and density, flowering time, smell, smoke structure and effects on humans. Indica plants grow shorter and more intensely than Sativa plants. Indica subtypes tend to have broad and short leaves, while Sativa subtypes have thin and long leaves. Buds tend to be large and dense in Indica subspecies, while long, sausage-shaped flowers can be observed in Sativa subspecies.
On average, Cannabis indica has a higher THC / CBD ratio, whereas C. Sativa is lower, but there is great variability in both species. However, on average, the THC ratio was higher in Sativa plants. In the 1970s, plants belonging to the C. Indica species from Afghanistan and Hindukush were hybridized and cultivated in the USA with C. Sativa plants from the equatorial regions. This has played a role in the spread of cannabis cultivation in the United States.
The name Indica is derived from the geographical region where the plant is grown. Whether C. Sativa and C. Indica are separate species remains controversial. However, the investigation of chemotaxonomic differences supports the hypothesis that they are separate species.
THC Degrees in Cannabis Strains
Cannabis is obtained by processing seedbeds of the female sexual plants of Cannabis sativa / Cannabis indica species of the cannabis plant. It is a substance formed by cannabinoids in the resin prepared by drying and suppressing the leaves of the plant and its active ingredient is released from these parts. The most active substance in cannabinoids in cannabis and responsible for the pharmacological effects of cannabis is Δ9-THC / Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol. The high THC-containing portions of the cannabis plant are dried in the shade, then comminuted and sieved. The fine powdery substance obtained by this sieving is called “powder cannabis”, and the plate-shaped state of this powder obtained by heating and molding is called “wedge cannabis”. When the finest powder is passed through a silk sieve, the underlying marijuana is first quality. This is called powdered hashish in the cannabis market. The use of a single screen type (except for the producers’ own use) to save time in the sieving process often results in the production of single quality powder cannabis.
The genus grown for industrial purposes, such as oil and fiber production, is Cannabis sativa, but the plants grown for this purpose have been specially bred to contain very low amounts of THC and produce as much seed and fiber as possible compared to normal C. Sativa. This species is hard, bushy, hollow body, thin and long-leafed, dioic and one-year. The fibers are durable and quite long. When lignin accumulates in the fibers, its elasticity decreases. These fibers are used in coarse weaving (sacks, rope bags, net making). The seed is used as fuel in terms of being very oily and as food in terms of being very nutritious. Seeds are also used in soap making and dye-making. The seeds are one of the birds’ favorite foods.
Cannabis Indica and Cannabis Sativa can be used in cannabis production, and the cannabis obtained today is mostly from plants obtained as a result of crossing these two species. Cannabis material obtained from cannabis is taken from the flower and seedbeds of the female plants and from the leaves around these regions, which can then be processed to make herbal, powdered cannabis or herbal oil. Although cannabis can be used as a pleasure, there are many medical uses of it as well.
Permission must be obtained from the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry for the breeding of the female plant. While the male plant cannot be used to obtain cannabis because it is not flowered, it is not fully stated in the law whether permission to grow is required. Cannabis Ruderalis, another species, does not have any industrial or economic use because it contains low amounts of THC and is fiberless and small and grows wild in Europe.
More Information About Cannabis Types and Degrees
Cannabis is the name of the substance obtained from the cannabis plant. It has been used as an alternative to alcohol all over the world for centuries as it is a very easy to grow and low-cost plant. Cannabis has existed in the life of people for thousands of years in the industry, in pleasurable activities, in ancient societies, in religious rituals, in medicine and so on. However, it is still one of the most debated issues. One group describes it as a drug, while another argues that marijuana is not a drug, but a pleasurable substance and even more harmless than cigarettes and alcohol. Debates on cannabis and the legalization demands of advocates continue all over the world. In many countries, a certain amount of cannabis has been legalized for “individual use”.
The height of the cannabis plant varies depending on where it is grown and sometimes extends up to 1-2 meters. Rope, rope, sack, etc. are made using the fibers of the plant. The cannabis plant is divided into two as male and female. Cannabis is extracted from female hemp. The main active ingredient in cannabis is THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol). There are different types of cannabis consumed. The most widely consumed varieties are Indica and Sativa. These are obtained from different processes from the cannabis plant. Each has a different degree. Cannabis is usually consumed as a herb. It is the most natural form of the mature female cannabis plant.
However, cannabis is also widely used as a powder. Powder cannabis is obtained by passing the head parts of the cannabis plant through a very fine sieve. It is similar to henna and has different colors and odors according to its quality. Before cannabis is used, cannabis is subjected to a process called ”push“. This is the process by which powdered cannabis is wrapped in damp paper and aluminum foil, heated in the fire and then pressed into a plate.
The so-called Afghan type is not used much. Afghan has a glass paste color and consistency. It is widespread in countries such as Afghanistan, Morocco, Syria, and Pakistan, and spreads from here to the world. Afghan cannabis is obtained by adding different mixtures to cannabis in powder form. It may contain several chemical substances. In the flowering tops of the female cannabis plant, there is a dark liquid called resin, which is called resin cannabis.
Cannabis’s Journey from East to West
- When Napoleon camped in Egypt in 1798-99 to cross the Arabian peninsula, he saw that cannabis use was increasingly spreading between the soldiers and demanded that those who use it by prohibiting it be punished violently.
- Despite all these strict measures, cannabis has continued to spread among the soldiers.
- When the soldiers returned to their homeland, they introduced the cannabis into France along with their habits.
- Over time, Cannabis has become a sector in Europe. There are many formations and websites on the subject from health, entertainment, upbringing, sales, television, music groups, and even party organizations. Especially in countries where there is freedom to grow hemp at home is common.
- There are many sites that contain information about indoor cultivation and sell cultivation tools and cannabis seeds of different breeds.
- In Europe, cannabis is usually used in the form of weed.
- Materials for smoking herbs such as pipes and bong are widely used in Europe.
- Skunk is also common in Europe, a very effective form of cannabis.
Cannabis’s Historical Process
- Cannabis was first found in Chinese texts written in 2700 BC. It is mentioned in Zoroastrian, the book of Persians. Cannabis is commonly referred to in Indian sources as well. Galen from Bergama (131-201 AD) mentioned the effects of cannabis too. Cannabis entered the Arab world long after Islam.
- Cannabis came from the Far East, China, and India. Ibn-i Sina explained how to make medicine from cannabis.
- It has been used in many sects for medication and pleasure. Cannabis first entered Europe through travelers’ and later through Napoleon’s troops and became widespread very quickly.
- The euphoria effect of cannabis has been known for thousands of years. Its pain-relieving effect was discovered in the 19th and 20th centuries and it started to be used in medicine.
- Cannabis has been one of the most important sources of medicine for centuries. Cannabis is used to reduce vomiting during cancer treatment, to increase appetite in patients with aids, and in the treatment of increased eye pressure called glaucoma.
Effects of Cannabis
Cannabis’s effect on humans varies depending on the type of cannabis, amount of use, mode of use, environmental conditions, and the mental state of the user. Cannabis has different physiological and psychological effects. Their effects on psychology are more important than their physiological effects. Researches on psychological effects are still continuing in the world.
The main active ingredient in marijuana is THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol). THC is among the so-called cannabinoids. When cannabis is used, depending on the genus and manner of use, its pleasurable effect envelops the body within minutes. The effect is maximized in half an hour and this effect lasts for 2-4 hours.
In general, redness in the eyes, dilation of the pupils, acceleration of heart rate, increased appetite, dry mouth are the symptoms after cannabis use. One’s sensitivity to external stimuli increases, discovers new details, sees colors brighter and more vividly, and the flow of time slows down. It decreases one’s mobility and motor performance. The orientation towards time and place deteriorates. Cannabis accumulates in adipose tissue. These are mostly the brain and reproductive organs. It can be stored here in about 30 days.
In the absence of craving, a sudden desire to reuse cannabis may occur. When cannabis use is discontinued, in the short term, irritability, inability to relax, insomnia, anorexia may occur.
Cannabis Physiological Effects by Degrees
Effect on the lungs:
At this point, the use of cannabis comes to the fore. If cannabis is constantly wrapped with tobacco, problems such as dry cough, sputum, dry bronchitis may be encountered. Tobacco plays a leading role. Since cannabis is often drawn into the lungs with a hard air, the effect of tobacco will be greater than normal cigarettes. The use of so-called bong is more harmful to the lung. It is especially dangerous for the lungs to prolong the long-term repetition of smoking cannabis using a bong. Drying of the nasal mucosa and conjunctiva occurs in cannabis users for a while.
Effect to the heart:
Cannabis increases heart rate and blood pressure.
Effect to the brain:
Cannabis suppresses the entry and processing of perceptual information into the hippocampus. This affects the limbic system, which enables learning, memory, and perceptions to be integrated into emotion and motivation. In addition, learned behaviors related to the hippocampus are impaired. Brain contraction (cerebral atrophy) may be seen. It causes forgetfulness.
Effect on the appetite:
A study in Nature’s April 2001 issue will help us better understand why marijuana increases appetite. The molecules called endocannabinoids, that is, the marijuana-like chemicals that already exist in our brains, are connected to receptors in the brain to stimulate hunger. These endocannabinoids in the hypothalamus region of the brain stimulate cannabinoid receptors responsible for food intake. Chemicals from marijuana bind to these cannabinoid receptors and cause hunger. It’s a bit complicated, isn’t it?
Cannabis Psychological Effects by Degrees
Cannabis is exhilarating soon after it is used. Cannabis first increases the effectiveness of the sympathetic system. At this moment, the person’s experience varies depending on the type, quality and quantity of cannabis used. Mood changes occur after cannabis is taken. These changes are found in a wide range of sensations, between the grief and the gratification. Sometimes changes in perception and thoughts are added to these.
There may be an increase in emotion and enthusiasm in the direction of pleasure. Excessive cheer increases speech and movement. The association and thought flow are accelerated. Imagination and design power come to life. Relationship with the environment increases. The period of joy can be followed by a period of perception and thought disorders. There may have visual hallucinations. The perception of time and space deteriorates. Will is weak, sexual desire may increase. Sexual deviations are encountered.
Cannabis users may not have the same psychology and emotions each time they use it. The person who uses it takes on a good mood called a good trip. However, it can also be seen when entering a bad mood called the bad trip. The fact that one of them is a factor depends on the psychological state of the user. One’s sensitivity to external stimuli increases, discovers new details, sees colors brighter and more vividly, and the flow of time slows down.
Cannabis, together with these short-term effects, is very effective on people as a lifestyle. At this point, the amount of cannabis use is very important. There are many people who regularly use cannabis at regular intervals and live a normal family and work-life. After the first use of cannabis, different psychology and lifestyle can be introduced gradually. Although the social environment should not necessarily be aware that the person uses cannabis, cannabis is effective in this person’s business life, in his works, and in family life. It has been seen that many art connoisseurs from the past to the present have been blended with the influence of cannabis and performed works. By increasing the ability to think, it causes dimension in thought and it is the factor in the emergence of different ideas.
Skeptical, logical and questioning thinking develops with regular cannabis use. This situation can sometimes reach dangerous dimensions according to the psychological structure of the user. The hazard dimension mentioned here can be explained as follows; The regular cannabis user now spreads this skeptical mindset to certain levels of his life. This may become obsessed with certain events over time. For example, this skeptical and logical approach can lead to disbelief in matters related to faith. Self-confidence increased and positive developments were observed in socially passive individuals. It is controversial whether cannabis itself causes aggression or a state of reluctance and numbness called ”amotivational syndrome”.
Psychological conditions caused by cannabis use were first described in 1845 by Moreau de Tours in France. Moreau de Tours detected symptoms such as excessive joy, emotional disorder, and imbalance, perception disorders, thought overflow, deviation, obsession, confusion and loss of memory. Hey, and Porot, on the other hand, did not state that the symptoms determined by Moreau de Tours vary according to personal characteristics and the amount of cannabis used.
In 1968, the Home Office published the Cannabis report as a result of the extensive research and studies carried out with the participation of many experts in the UK. In this report, it has been accepted that long-term use of cannabis can lead to mental disorders and diseases, and cannabis-induced behavioral disorders are divided into acute (during cannabis use) and chronic (after long-term cannabis use).
The report provides the following information about such disorders:
Acute disorders are often seen among cannabis users. Consciousness begins to blur. Place and time orientation are mixed. There is fear, distress, and panic. These feelings cannot be remembered again after this period has passed. It could be a complete forgetfulness. There may be fear, anxiety, deviations of thought and delusions. Rarely, symptoms resembling the type of catatonia of schizophrenia were observed.
Mental problems can be seen in patients who use cannabis for a long time depending on the society and the person. These conditions are called cannabis psychosis. Mostly, simple and catatonic schizophrenia-like symptoms are seen. In addition, dementia, stagnation, mania, melancholy and paranoid mental illnesses have been reported. In spite of these mental conditions seen in cannabis users who use cannabis for a long time, the problem of whether cannabis causes a serious mental illness, especially schizophrenia and early dementia, has not yet been clarified.
It is generally accepted that schizophrenia and early dementia that is seen in cannabis users occur mostly in patients with a tendency to this disease. However, sufficient research has not been conducted and data has not been collected yet. In summary, mental disorders called cannabis psychosis, which resemble schizophrenia in terms of symptoms, and which are difficult to diagnose, are seen in patients who use cannabis for a long time. In recent years, as in the Middle East and Far East countries, in the United States and European countries, the number of studies indicating that psychiatric disorders, schizophrenia, and early dementia-like conditions occur more frequently in cannabis users has increased.
Medicinal properties of cannabis include:
- Anticonvulsant reduces seizures.
- Antiemetic: relieves nausea
- Analgesic: painkillers
- Euphoric (cheerful) in cancer patients
- Bronchodilator in asthma (airway opener)
- Reduces intraocular pressure in the treatment of glaucoma (eye pressure).
- It is used as an appetite enhancer in patients with AIDS.
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