Cannabis (Hemp) is a plant species with a height of 1.2 – 4.5 m and used in the industrial field. Often confused with Marijuana in terms of appearance, the difference between them is the THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) content. The ratio of this substance in industrial cannabis is less than the other. Cannabis cultivation is also seen as an almost effortless agricultural activity, as it is an excellent rotation product. It is possible to earn a very high income in this area as it does not require any special conditions for soil and climate and does not require pesticides. For all these reasons, we tried to answer questions such as how cannabis grows, where cannabis grows, and to give extensive information about the industrial production process of the cannabis plant.
The cannabis industry is a sector that enables high yields per decare. In addition, the cultivation process of cannabis takes 90 days in total. As a result, more cellulose is obtained per acre. The wide usage area of cannabis also increases the interest in this field. Today, cannabis is used for shower curtains, upholstery fabric, glass fiber, window coverings, and automotive components. In addition, fiberboard, rope, twine, paper, cardboard, insulation, and chipboard are made from cannabis fibers. The cannabis plant, dating back to 8000 BC, was used for food and fiber, especially in the Mesopotamia region. Cannabis cultivation has become widespread in Central Asia thanks to China.
Cannabis Industry: How to Grow Cannabis
Before starting the cannabis cultivation process, it is necessary to learn about industrial cannabis varieties. Among the varieties, there are certain specific features. These can be listed as height, maturation time, oil content, fiber content, seed size. The important thing is to determine which variety will be preferred for planting. The cannabis varieties suitable for the fiber sector contain 15% to 25% peat. The cannabis plant grows from seed and appears as an annual plant. Cannabis soil should be well-drained and high in nitrogen. In contrast, poor soil drainage and salinity are not suitable for cannabis cultivation. In terms of climate, it requires a mild weather condition and an average of 64 – 76 mm of precipitation per year. Before planting, the soil temperature should be 5.5 – 7.7 degrees on average.
When the plants shed pollen in mid-August, the fibers of the crop can be collected. However, the harvest period is 4 – 6 weeks later. Cannabis plants come in two types; female and male. The maturation process of female cannabis is different from that of male cannabis. Male cannabis is ready for harvest within approximately 100-110 days after the flowering period. In female cannabis, this process is delayed for 4 – 5 weeks compared to male cannabis. If cannabis cultivation is to be done for the textile industry, a special machine is needed for harvest time. This machine performs cutting and prevents damage to the plant during picking.
After the crop is cut, its stems are kept in the field for an average of 4 – 6 weeks depending on the weather in order to loosen the fibers. The stems are turned with special machines and subjected to the baling process. The bales are then stored indoors. Cannabis, which can also be grown wild, is a plant that has a long history. Cannabis cultivation was first made in Mesopotamia in 8000 BC. It then spread to China and India. Today, the countries that break records in terms of cannabis cultivation are known as China and India. However, the plant can be grown in almost every region. This is because the plant does not require any special conditions.
Legal Industrial Cannabis Production
Industrial cannabis cultivation continues its activities as a legal sector with some regulations. The fiber of cannabis is ramie, a fiber similar to flax. Therefore, cannabis fibers can be used in both traditional and innovative products. As a result of legal industrial cannabis production, the simple fibers of cannabis are used in textiles and making fillers. Thanks to the economical properties and high durability of the fibers, it is possible to use them in glass parts, car parts, and construction materials.
Legal industrial cannabis production complies with ecological principles. In this way, the development of this sector is seen as very attractive and it is known that it will contribute greatly to the country’s economy. The biggest advantage of cannabis fibers in the industrial field is that it is lighter than glass fiber. At the same time, because it is stronger and more economical, it causes great income. In addition, it provides cost-effectiveness in paper applications.
The main usage area of cannabis is known as textiles. High-quality cannabis plants are known to be resistant for a long time. If the cannabis cultivation is successfully completed, the cannabis fabric will show resistance to UV rays. At the same time, shipping is among the industries where cannabis is used. It is often used for sails and rigging on ships. Compared to cotton, cannabis has a stronger structure. In addition, cannabis production requires less freshwater and chemicals. Especially often mixed with organic cotton. This increases the quality of cannabis. It is used to make clothes, hats, sweaters, trousers, and shirts in the textile field.
At the same time, cosmetics are among the sectors where cannabis is used. Healthy foods and personal care products also contain cannabis. cannabis, which is also used in paper production, reduces the pressure on forests. In this way, trees are prevented from being cut down for paper production. cannabis requires little bleach. At the same time, cannabis fibers are known to be longer lasting than other fibers. It is also possible to enrich the soil as fertilizer. It is also beneficial in terms of soil retention.
Industries Where Cannabis Is Used
Industrial cannabis is used in many areas. This plant, which even benefits our natural life, has been banned in many countries. Because the cannabis plant is believed to be a drug. Recently, however, quite a lot of news has been published regarding the benefits of this herb. For this reason, the actions to legalize cannabis cultivation and to allow its production is being taken. Cannabis plants provide benefits in the following areas;
✿ One of the most important features of the cannabis plant is that it gives off high levels of oxygen. The hemp that the grower has planted on a decare produces oxygen as much as a forest of 25 decares.
✿ This plant can also be used for paper production. In normal standards, a tree can turn into paper 3 times, while cannabis plants can transform into paper 8 times.
✿ This is a type of plant that is very successful in the field of radiation.
✿ If textile products made with hemp weevil are produced intensively, the pesticide sector may disappear completely.
✿ Another known benefit of cannabis is that it can be used for a minimum of 250 diseases such as epilepsy, heart, insomnia, stomach, asthma, rheumatism, spinal disorders, and psychological problems in order to minimize the effect of radiation and chemotherapy in cancer and AIDS treatments.
✿ Thanks to this plant, which is also used for the nutritional needs of animals, animals will be able to develop without the need for hormone supplements.
✿ The durability of cars produced from this plant, which can also be used in the automotive sector, might be 10 times higher than normal.
✿ This plant, which is also useful in the construction sector, can also be used for insulation purposes. Products produced within this scope are cheap, flexible, and durable.
✿ You can also use hemp in the manufacture of soap and other cosmetic products necessary for the human body. In this way, nature will not be polluted and damaged in any way due to the fact that cannabis does not pollute the water.
✿ You can also be nature-friendly by using hemp in the production of plastic products. Hemp plastic will transform very easily in nature.
✿ It is food that people can consume as food. It contains protein and two types of fatty acids.
✿ It is a plant that has a great effect on clothing. We want you to know that the first jeans in the past years were made of hemp. The name canvas is actually given to trousers made of hemp.
✿ Another advantage of cannabis is that it grows very quickly. For example, while a tree grows and develops between 20 and 50 years, hemp grows in 4 months.
✿ The paper to be converted from one decare of hemp provides production equal to 4 decares of trees.
✿ In addition to all these, this plant, which can grow all over the world, needs very little water. They do not need pesticides due to their ability to protect themselves from insects.
✿ Cannabis plants are cheaper to produce even than soybeans.
Although drugs such as marijuana come to mind when it comes to cannabis, as mentioned above, it provides benefits in many areas from the pharmaceutical industry to papermaking. The cannabis plant has two types of plants, male and female. It is not possible for the breeder to understand whether it is male or female at the first seed purchase. After the cultivation of cannabis, 30 percent and 35 percent male plants, 65 percent, and 70 percent female plants emerge from the seeds. There are 51 varieties of cannabis that are permitted to be produced in Germany.
During the application for cannabis cultivation; The applicant must sign a letter of undertaking stating that he has not been convicted for crimes such as growing, distributing, or trading or using drugs and that he has not previously cultivated without permission. Cannabis cultivation as specified in the regulation; If it is to be used for purposes such as stalk, fiber, and seed, it is allowed for a maximum of one production period following the application, and for applications made for scientific research, it is valid for a maximum of three years. The area where the cultivation is done by the technical personnel authorized by the provincial or district directorates in the places where the breeding will be carried out will be controlled and inspected once a month from the planting time to the harvest time.
The cannabis plant is used in many areas such as the textile industry, automotive industry, cosmetics and soap industry, pharmaceutical production, paper making, plastic product production, animal food, and pads. If it is used in these products, it does not harm nature. Although cannabis cultivation seems easy, it can be challenging if you do not have information about it and have no experience. For this reason, you should get ideas from the people who do this job and do detailed research before starting the cannabis breeding business. If you can hold on to this business and sell it, you can make a very high profit. You need to be very careful when growing cannabis. If you produce as drugs, production may be stopped by provincial and district directorates.
How is Industrial Cannabis Produced?
Cannabis is divided into male and female. Male cannabis is suitable for use in the industry. Cultivation and production of female cannabis are prohibited. Because there is THC substance in its flowers which is used in drug production.
Planting of cannabis begins in April and May. Cannabis does not require much maintenance after the planting is over and grows spontaneously in regions with a humid climate. It can be grown in arid regions with a little irrigation method. Normally, it grows spontaneously in regions with a minimum of 700 mm of rainfall.
Cannabis grows in any soil, but its yield is maximized in soils that are deeply plowed, rich in nutrients, slightly loose, and rich in organic substances, with a pH value of 7 to 7.5. Yield drops in acidic soils.
Cannabis is in the category of arable plants, but yields decrease when planted in this way. It does not leave as much residue as other plants after harvest, so it is one of the best pre-plants for the plant to be planted after it.
The preparation of the area where hemp will be planted should be done in autumn. If you have stubble, it is recommended that you do not mix it with the soil you will plant. The area to be planted in autumn should be plowed deeply with the help of the plow. At the beginning of April, disc harrow and rake should be thrown into the soil where hemp will be planted and a nice seedbed should be prepared. The fact that the seed you use is fresh, large, and clean are the factors that will maximize the yield. (The seeds at the bottom of the plant are larger and cleaner.)
- Planting Time
Cannabis cultivation should be started in the spring, depending on the region you are in. Planting should be completed in April or May.
- Planting Type
Hand-sprinkling in hemp reduces the seeding yield. This method uses more seeds, and the seeds do not fall deep, thus making maintenance difficult. Planting with a machine is the most accurate. In industrial production, the sprouts should be 20-25 cm apart, and in seed production, this figure should be increased to 30-40 cm. Sowing depth should not exceed 2-3 cm. At the same time, 6-9 kg/decare seed should be used for fiber production. For seed production, this figure should be 4-5 kg / decare. (While dense sowing leads to an increase in fiber quality, sparse sowing is to increase seed quality.)
- Irrigation Amount
Hemp does not require irrigation in areas with minimum precipitation of 700 mm. In arid climates, it should be watered 2-4 times. The period when it needs water the most is the first time it develops. Irrigation during this period in arid lands and areas without precipitation will increase efficiency.
- Fertilizer Use
While the soil to be planted in the cannabis plant is being prepared (in autumn), the farm manure should be mixed with the soil. After planting, nitrogenous and phosphorus fertilizers should be given. 2-4 tons of farm manure, 8-12 kg nitrogen in pure form per decare, ammonium sulfate or ammonium nitrate, and 6-8 kg/decare pure phosphorus should be given as superphosphate fertilizer.
- Hoeing and Care
After hemp is planted, hoeing should be done when the sprout is 5-10 cm long. When it is 25-30 cm long, the second hoeing should be done. While hoeing increases the yield of cannabis, it also allows you to fight weeds.
- Maturity Period and Harvest
The maturity and harvest time of male and female cannabis plants are different from each other. Male plants mature and harvest earlier. Yellowing of the stalks and dropping leaves of male plants are indicators of their maturity. This is the ideal harvest time for male plants. Female plants mature and harvested approximately 4-5 weeks after the maturation of the male plants.
Is Cannabis Industry Profitable?
Industrial cannabis is produced in most countries, and there are many companies that buy cannabis. The earnings of cannabis cultivation are wondered by the producers. As there are many types of cannabis plants, the areas where it is used also differ. Flax-hemp is among the industrial plants. In addition, the cannabis plant is also used in the medical industry. There are male as well as female cannabis. One of the most curious questions of our farmers is whether cannabis seeds are prohibited. I have researched whether the cannabis industry is profitable or not for you. You can get detailed information on the subject of our content.
When the cannabis plant is evaluated in terms of human history, it will be seen that it is very important. It can be used as a vegetable raw material as well as industrially. There is a mistake we know about cannabis. This means that only drugs are produced from cannabis. However, there are many areas where cannabis plants are used industrially. The benefits do not end with counting. There are fibers in the stems. These fibers are used in fabric-making and weaving. The section called pulp is used in paper production. While the papers produced from wood are not durable, the paper produced from hemp pulps has a life span of thousands of years. Cannabis production is allowed in certain provinces.
In many countries in Europe, the production of industrial hemp that does not contain fiber and seed properties is prohibited. Hemp is an annual plant. Since its fibers are very durable, it can be used in rope, bag, net, and sack production. The seeds of the cannabis plant have an oily form. For this reason, hemp oil is also obtained from it. Leaf parts are used in medicine production. We also encounter it in the food industry as it is a nutritious substance. Also, fiber parts are used in the oil industry. In addition to these, it is known to be used in the following areas;
- Food (Contains fatty acids and amino acids.)
- Pharmaceutical industry
- Paper production
- Clothing industry
- Fuels such as charcoal
- Personal care products such as lotion and soap
- Animal feed and litter
- Oil (Wood mastic, varnish, paint)
- Construction Materials
- It is the automotive industry.
Cannabis is divided into male and female varieties. It is very difficult for our farmers to distinguish between male and female cannabis. Because it cannot be decided whether it is male or female by looking at cannabis seeds. While 65 to 70% of female cannabis emerges after seeds are planted, only 30 to 35% of male cannabis occurs. After the harvesting process, you can decide whether cannabis is male or female. While the female plant is only leafy, male plants have pollen sacs. There are many benefits of cannabis for men. These benefits are as follows;
- It has a soundproof feature.
- The threaded part is antibacterial. For this reason, it is used in the medical industry.
- It is used in chipboard making. Because it is a durable plant.
- The fiber part is used as an insulating material in the construction industry.
- It is fire-resistant.
- It has a cleaning effect on radiation.
- Its seeds are used in the treatment of many diseases.
- Planted on only one decare of land, cannabis can produce as much oxygen as a forest of 25 decares. (5 times the oxygen of a tree)
- It is more suitable for paper production than wood.
- Construction bricks are made and these bricks last 600 years.
Although cannabis generates income, its production is also very difficult. Rotting and mold may occur in the plants of those who do not have technical knowledge on this subject. In addition, there are a number of features that companies who buy cannabis look for. If your product does not pass the tests, the product will remain in your hands. Since hemp is also used illegally, you need to be very careful about situations such as stolen. You can also make a profit from cannabis production, taking into account all the risk factors.
Industrial Benefits of Cannabis
Cannabis is a raw material that can be used in many industries. The cannabis plant is industrially produced by all countries of the world. Countries focused on cannabis, especially after its use in the field of medicine, and its cultivation areas were expanded. It has been increased by 150 percent a year in the USA. Besides, Israel is among the leading countries in medical use. It receives 4-5 times a year in specially established greenhouses. Canada has increased its land for cannabis production and started a hemp cultivation process on 100 thousand hectares.
Australia has also initiated incentives for cannabis cultivation. The Netherlands, as it is known, has allowed hemp, which has been a drug for years, and has also stepped up in industrial cannabis production and increased its cultivation land by 200 percent. Germany, France, and Austria also decided to expand their hemp cultivation areas last year. The sectors where cannabis is used the most are as follows;
- Food Industry,
- Cosmetics Industry,
- Pharmaceutical Sector,
- Textile sector,
- Paper Industry,
- Building Materials Industry,
- Petroleum and Petrochemical Industry.
Cannabis, which is used in almost all industrial sectors and is more profitable than most substances, has many benefits. Hemp, which has the feature of cleansing nature, is also one of the effective raw materials of the health sector today. Among the benefits and properties of cannabis are the following.
- Cannabis, which grows easily in all kinds of vegetation and climatic conditions, becomes an adult in 4 years. This situation is 25 years in an average tree.
- Cannabis grown on an area of 1 decare provides oxygen as much as 25 decares of forest area.
- The paper obtained from a 1-acre cannabis plant is the same as the paper obtained from a 4-acre forest area.
- Hemp is protective against radiation. It is extremely effective against intense radiation, especially in closed environments.
- Before it was banned, hemp was one of the raw materials frequently used in the textile field. The first jeans were made of hemp, and these pants were called canvas. After its ban, today’s jeans were produced.
- In the health sector, cannabis is used in the production of drugs for cancer, AIDS, heart diseases, asthma, epilepsy, migraine, and stomach ailments.
- Plastic can also be produced from hemp, and the recycling of this plastic to nature is much faster.
- In heavy industry, hemp becomes much stronger than steel when processed. This makes the resulting product more durable.
Cannabis Industry in World Countries
Cannabis lobbies, which are growing like an avalanche in the world, are rapidly established in the USA, Canada, Germany, Australia, Israel, the Netherlands, France in cooperation with NGOs and government, and cannabis production areas are expanded day by day.
The USA increased its cultivation areas by 150%, increased the number of free states to 38 in 2018, civil society organizations exceeded 100, new lobbies are being established every day. It conducts new studies on biodiesel, electricity generation, polymer, food products, CBD Oil, hemp cosmetic products. It conducts researches that will meet all the electricity needs of the country by planting Hemp in 6% of the agricultural lands and solve the oil expenses of all vehicles with the bio-diesel method. It aims to increase its production value from 581 Million Dollars in 2013 to around 70 Billion Dollars in 2025.
Israel also passed the law from the Ministry of Health as a result of the R&D it has made for Medicinal Cannabis production. It is used in the production of medicinal medicine by taking the product 4-5 times in private greenhouses. It takes the leadership of the world in medical usage and deals with solutions that will manage a 100 billion dollar market in 10 years in the pharmaceutical market including cancer and its derivatives, MS / ALS, Compulsive Depressive treatments.
100,000 hectares of Cannabis is cultivated in Canada. Legal regulations related to CBD and its use in the medical field have been enacted, and industries are established for its use in food products (Hamburger-Pizza-Bread, etc.). Foreseeing a $ 25 billion market, Canada faces NGOs and social media that it will revise its targets.
Hemp food production is getting more widespread in Australia, the expected revenue of around $ 1 Billion in 2020 is expected to be $ 55 Billion with the use of industrial products in 2025.
Planting and production in the Netherlands increased by 200%. It established 1 Laboratory and 1 processing facility in Romania. The Netherlands, which is the European leader in agricultural products, is researching the gene codes of Cannabis strains on the condition of establishing new R&D bases.
The demand for medical cannabis cannot be met in Germany. Germany is funding the EU to cultivate in neighboring countries. By changing the drug codex, it paved the way for drugs with CBD. With EU funds, 100,000 decares of hemp food and 100,000 decares of cultivation area were created in Romania, 60,000 decares of cultivation area in Bulgaria, 30,000 decares of cultivation areas, and hemp production areas, especially Xanthi in Greece, were created and plantings were released. Germany has decided to use hemp-based products in its new generation cars, especially in the bodywork and protection bars, famous automobile companies are advertising in this area. Although he does not share the details of his studies, an industry of $ 50 Billion Euros expects medical cannabis products in the long run.
Austria: Increased cultivation areas, sold 22 tons of Cannabis flowers to Germany
30,000 decares of Cannabis is cultivated in France. For the $ 2 billion market, they have increased their planting areas, and the food industry continues to investigate construction materials and cellulose on high cellulose and fibers.
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