Cannabis is an annual and long-day plant. It is one of the important fiber plants, but since it is used in marijuana production, its cultivation is limited in many countries of the world. Fiber is obtained from the stems of the cannabis plant and oil is obtained from its seeds. Hemp fiber is used to make twine, rope, fishing net, etc. You can also grow cannabis with the necessary permit. So, let’s take a look at cannabis growing supplies, methods, and more!
Cannabis growing supplies are soil, water, cannabis seed, and enough light. Cannabis plants can grow well in deeply plowed alluvial soils rich in plant nutrients, pH value between 7-7.5, calcareous, loose, and good organic matter ratio. It cannot develop well in heavy and acidic soils. Although cannabis is a plant that can be planted in a row, in this case, the yield decreases. It is a good pre-plant as it does not leave much residue after harvest. It is suitable to be planted after tobacco in strong soils. The best front crop in cannabis cultivation is legumes. Cannabis can go through all kinds of crop rotation.
Cannabis Growing Supplies
When we consider the different phases of the cannabis plant, which are the rooting, development, and flowering phase; We can talk about various materials that can meet our needs while growing plants. It is possible to divide these materials into two groups as required materials and optional materials.
The necessary materials are indispensable when growing cannabis, but can be considered as basic ingredients. Optional materials, on the other hand, are materials that work to increase the efficiency of your garden or adapt your garden to the conditions. The required materials can be listed as follows:
- Light Set: Lamp, Ballast, Reflector, Timer. (2 different lamps or a single lamp with a double spectrum can be used for the development and flowering phase.)
- Rooting (Sprouting) Stage Nutrient
- Developmental Stage Nutrient
- Flowering Phase Nutrient
- Heat-Humidity Meter
- Humidity Machine
- Plant Growing Cabinet
- pH Meter
Light is the most important element in growing cannabis. In order for plants to create the day-night cycle they create with the light they provide from the sun in a natural environment, they must receive the right amount of light. During the development phase, the plant should receive 16 hours of light and remain in darkness for 8 hours. During the flowering phase, the plant should receive 12 hours of light and remain in the dark for 12 hours.
The timer can be used to set these light cycles. During the growing period, Metal Halide Lamp can be used in the development phase, HPS Lamp in the flowering phase, or Dual Spectrum (SHP) Lamp for both phases. We recommend you to use CFL Lamp during the germination phase (5-7 days) which is the first stage of cultivation.
The temperature in the growing area needs to be monitored regularly and adjusted as needed. The ideal temperature for the bright period is between 24-26 ° C. For the dark period, the ideal temperature is between 23-24 ° C. The temperature in the environment where the plant is located should never fall below 21 ° C and exceed 28 ° C.
You can follow the temperature value in the plant growing area with the Heat-Humidity Meter device. (To get the most accurate result when measuring the temperature in the growing area, you should measure the temperature from the height of the plant.) You can adjust the temperature in the growing area by means of a fan, ventilator, and heater.
Humidity in the growing area is another fundamental parameter that must be kept under control. The ideal humidity rate in the plant growing area is between 50% and 60%. You can measure the humidity in the air with your Heat-Humidity Meter. Mold can appear when the humidity rises too high, and the molding of the plants will cause the roots to rot and the plants to gradually lose their health. You can adjust the humidity in the growing area via a fan and a humidifier.
Ventilation and general circulation of air in the growing area are important factors in plant breeding. As mentioned in the previous chapters, good ventilation helps keep the humidity and temperature at the right values. The plant growing area should be ventilated 24/7 with ventilation equipment.
In-plant cultivation, irrigation is much more than meeting the water needs of the plant. With irrigation, you also give your plant the important nutrients your plant needs to grow. Generally, 2 or 3 irrigation times a week is sufficient. Touch the surface of the soil you are watering to see if it’s time to water.
If it’s dry, don’t be afraid to water your plant. The pH rate of the water plays a major role in the plant’s consumption of nutrients you give to the plants and in keeping the plant healthy. The pH rate each plant needs is different. You can use pH Up and pH Down solutions to lower and raise the pH of your irrigation water.
Cannabis Growing Methods
In the dioic cannabis population, female plants are always cross-pollinated. There are all-male populations that can be used to produce hybrid varieties with a selected pollinator. In the case of the monoic cannabis variety, male and female flowers are on different branches of the same plant, and pollination occurs by insect or wind. An extraneous pollinated plant species such as cannabis requires a specific breeding approach consisting of three stages:
- To investigate the natural variation in the plant and to create a basic population suitable for the purpose,
- Creating different rootstock plants through selection and improving the population with repeated selections to create a breeding population,
- Developing and testing cultural varieties.
Available cannabis varieties are grown by (1) Standard “open-pollinated” varieties and (2) Cross-breeding (controlled pollination between individuals selected by different breeding methods) varieties. Methods used in cannabis breeding are:
- Selection Breeding
Bulk / Mass Selection
- Cross Breeding
Crossbreeding Between Species / Varieties
Hybrid / Hybrid / F1 (Heterosis) Breeding
- Breeding with Biotechnological Methods
- Synthetic Variety Production
- Mutation Breeding
- Polyploidy Reclamation
Other Important Parameters in Cannabis Growing
Cannabis, which belongs to the Cannabaceae family, is in the category of annual plants. The fact that it is used in marijuana production all over the world has caused the banning of cannabis cultivation. Apart from its recreational use, cannabis is used by many industrial organizations. Hemp is needed in the production of many products that we use continuously. For this reason, cannabis cultivation continues in certain regions in a controlled manner.
Cannabis is often preferred for yarn and fabric production. It is among the plants that are always used especially in paper production. Since the fibers in its structure are very strong, it is also used in the production of items such as sacks or bags. The cannabis plant has many different types within itself. Cannabis varieties that can be grown are divided into two as male and female. Male plants or female plants cannot be identified at the seed stage. Growers often buy seeds without knowing this.
When the plant reaches a certain level, its type is understood. However, 60-65% of the seeds come out as female. The male ratio is around 35%. In countries such as Germany where it is legal to grow cannabis, the variety is much higher. In Germany, 50 different types of cannabis are regularly produced.
It should be known that cannabis production can be done in different climates. However, these climates must have certain characteristics. First of all, cannabis plants always prefer climates with high humidity. If the amount of precipitation is below 700 mm, hemp cultivation will not be possible. Even if it is grown, it cannot be yielded.
Cannabis cannot be grown in places where temperatures reach very low levels. When the temperature values fall below -5 ° C, cannabis freezes and its development stops. It should be cultivated in areas where temperatures do not fall to these levels or very special measures should be taken. It takes 4 months for cannabis to be ready for use. The higher the air temperatures, the sooner cannabis production will be completed.
The lands where cannabis will be cultivated are also extremely important. It is always necessary to prefer soils rich in organic matter. Cannabis develops very well if the pH value of the soil is in the range of 7-7.5. In order for the soil to be more productive, it is generally cultivated in regions where streams and streams pass. However, with the fertilization processes, the missing minerals of the soil can be completed.
Since it can grow in different soil types, it is necessary to first analyze and determine the missing substances in the soil. With the fertilization made accordingly, high-efficiency cannabis is grown. Deep plowing of the soil is extremely important. Yield decreases to undesirable levels in deep no-till soils.
The soil must be prepared for the cultivation of cannabis. It is not possible to plant cannabis directly without any treatment in the soil. Deep plowing will be required for the cultivation of the cannabis plant. If the summer months are very dry, deep plowing should be carried out in the autumn months. When it comes to the spring months, it is necessary to clean the weeds on the soil and then apply it again.
In this way, the soil will soften and become suitable for cannabis. In the case of large soil accumulations, these accumulations must be distributed. After it is distributed, the soil is leveled and it becomes ready for planting. The first stage of the question of how to plant cannabis is completed in this way. Then, the transplantation process itself.
Planting in Cannabis Growing
Planting/sowing operations for industrial hemp production are carried out in the spring months. Springtime frosts cause serious damage to cannabis. For this reason, it is necessary to make sure that the frosts are over and planting should be done in this way. Generally, March will be the months when planting takes place. It will be sufficient to plant cannabis only 2-3 cm depth of the soil.
It is recommended to use seeders in planting operations. In this way, the sowing process is carried out sequentially and very smoothly. Two different purposes can be mentioned in performing the transplantation process. Hemp fiber or seed is produced. Sowing operations in fiber production and seed production are carried out in different ways.
If fiber production will be made, the intervals in the planting process should be 20-25 cm. This distance will be greater in seed production. The aim of fiber planting is to increase the amount of fiber. The lower the gaps, the greater the amount of fiber. However, as different problems may arise when it falls below this distance, the appropriate distance has been determined as 20-25 cm. When fiber production is aimed, 7 to 9 kg of seeds should be planted in 1 decare area.
In seed production, the gap amount should be 30-40 cm. Just as proximity increases fiber production, distance also increases seed production. Being away from each other will increase branching. The amount of seed obtained in more branched cannabis also increases. When producing seeds, it will be sufficient to plant 4-5 kg seeds per decare.
Cannabis is a plant that literally exploits the minerals in the soil. It constantly uses the minerals in the soil. For this reason, when cultivating cannabis, the soil should always be enriched with fertilization. The first stage of the fertilization process takes place in the autumn months when the soil is plowed. During this period, natural fertilizer is given to the soil.
After the spring months arrive and hemp cultivation begins, nitrogenous fertilizers are introduced into the soil. During the fertilization process, 2-3 tons of natural fertilizer is needed for each decare. Artificial fertilizer is 10-12 kg. it will be enough if it is used up. Soil analysis will be required for the net usage amounts of fertilizers.
While cultivation is carried out in our regions where hemp cultivation is free, care should be done very well. Regular hoeing and irrigation are essential after hemp cultivation takes place. Irrigation processes ensure that the plant obtains the water it needs, while hoeing allows it to get rid of weeds and grow more comfortably.
In cannabis cultivation, the first hoeing process is done when the plant reaches a length of 5-10 cm. When the plant is 25-30 cm tall, the second hoeing process will take place. Water needs of male or female cannabis are no different. Both need to be watered. In areas that are not very arid, even watering once is sufficient. However, it may be necessary to irrigate 3-4 times in our rule regions.
In order to get a high rate of profit from hemp, it is necessary to harvest at the right time. Female cannabis matures later than male cannabis. If harvested before full maturation, serious losses may occur. 100 days after the planting, the male is ready for harvest. Female cannabis has a maturation period of 3-4 weeks more after this period.
The harvesting period of male cannabis is understood from the white dust cloud. Male hemp can be harvested 1 week after the formation of the dust cloud. Fiber harvest is done earlier than seed harvest. When it is late, the desired product is not obtained as the fibers will harden. Seed harvest can be done in the late period.
Flowering Behavior in Cannabis Growing
Cannabis is a dioecious species in which male and female flowers are found in different plants; Occasionally, monoic individuals may also be found within a population. In cannabis, which is a short-day plant, a critical photoperiod of about 14 hours is needed for flowering to occur. Variation is observed between the varieties in the transition from vegetative growth period to flowering. The heterogeneity between cultivars is due to the flowering time and the natural heterozygous nature of cannabis.
There are three stages of development in cannabis; (1) Juvenile (youth) stage, (2) Light-sensitive stage, (3) Flowering stage. Depending on the flowering time, there are three groups; early (after 40-60 days), mid-season (60-90 days), and late (90-120 days) flowering varieties. Early and mid-season ones are chosen for the northern hemisphere. If these varieties are grown in southern hemisphere conditions, the critical day length for flowering in the south will start early, as the critical day length is earlier than the northern hemisphere, and therefore the biomass yield will be lower.
On the other hand, late-maturing varieties should be selected for high fiber yield in low latitude regions (Thailand, Australia, Southern Europe). Fiber yield may increase if a variety from low latitude conditions is grown in a higher latitude condition. This effect of the increase in efficiency is clearly visible when the value of the latitude change is above 2 degrees. There are differences between cannabis varieties in terms of sensitivity to photoperiod change. For example, “Felina 34”, “Futura” and Chinese local variety “Huoqiuzi” varieties have low sensitivity; where most local Chinese varieties are highly sensitive.
Italian local variety “Carmagnola” and hybrid breeding variety “Fibranova” are moderately sensitive. Flowering behavior varies with photoperiod length as well as temperature and light quality. The researchers stated that when deciding on the variety, planting, and harvest time, the important thing is to act on the flowering time of cannabis. The basic condition for good fiber quality and yield is the use of a variety with suitable environmental and maintenance conditions. Thus, each application meets its own demands on fiber properties and fiber processing at the same time.
Fiber Yield and Quality in Cannabis Growing
Fiber quality largely depends on the morphology of the fiber bundles and the chemical structure of the starting fiber of the cell wall. The surface properties of the fiber raw material are important fiber properties in polymer reinforcement or biological compounds, which affect the interface bonding strength between the fibers and the matrix. For composite applications; The variability of natural fiber, moisture absorption, and processing costs are disadvantages of these fibers.
The variability in fiber properties is a result of the high heterogeneity in cannabis varieties, but may also result from the mixing of varieties during seed sowing in the same field. As the fiber maturity falls from the base of the stem to the top and from the outside to the inner fiber layers in the same internode; Fiber yield and quality change over time during plant development stages (for example, cellulose may increase from 56% to 65% depending on late flowering).
In addition, cultural practices such as plant density, nitrogen fertilization, and harvest time are also important factors affecting fiber yield and quality. High cellulose content, low degree of lignification, reduction in the number of crosslinks between pectins and structural components of the cell wall are among the important characteristics in terms of suitable extractable fiber gain for both the paper and textile industry.
Methods of removing impurities from fiber are the most important factor affecting fiber quality and properties. The breeding of genotypes that are easier to process provides a great advantage in terms of reducing the costs associated with fiber quality and extraction. These goals have been achieved by the Chameleon, Markant, Ivory, and Marcello varieties recently launched in the Netherlands. In studies conducted on Arabidopsis and other model plants, it is known that many genes are involved in cell wall processes.
Using microarrays, a random set of hemp cDNA sequences (n = 3414 cDNA) obtained from fiber material have been examined in terms of different expression profiles between phloem fiber tissue and wood pulp tissue during the developmental stages of the two hemp varieties “Chamaeleon” and “Felina 34”. Highly expressed cannabis genes in wood core tissue encode proteins involved in C1 metabolism, a process closely linked to lignin biosynthesis. Genes encoding arabinogalactan-related proteins, lipid transfer proteins, and lipoxygenase are found in high percentages in phloem fiber tissue.
Cannabinoid Profile in Cannabis Growing
Some studies have shown that the overall amount of cannabinoids depends on a variety of factors. A cool vegetation period can reduce the cannabinoid content of cognate cannabis, dry and windy climates can increase the cannabinoid content, while the THC content of leaves is also reported to decrease after nitrogen fertilization. According to some other researchers, although the total content of cannabinoids also depends on the sex of the plant and the stage of development of the plant, few studies have determined the chemotype of cannabis plants at different growth stages.
In fact, although the chemotype’s adherence to the environmental conditions and the growth phase of the plant has been confirmed, the cannabis plant, which is preserved in some countries, has been updated in countries such as the Netherlands, Germany, America, and Canada today, by updating the THC analysis protocols and quality controls of cannabis cultivation. They have become the leading countries in the multi-billion dollar cannabis industry. Generally, the quantitative component content of the cannabinoid (total amount of cannabinoids synthesized by the plant) occurs under strong ecological conditions.
It is also known that the cannabinoid content reaches its maximum in the trichome-rich plant parts before the plant enters the flowering phase. However, cannabinoid was not found in roots and seeds; According to several studies analyzing the cannabinoid production of cultured kernel cells, no THC or CBD could be detected. Plants in a population show great variety in terms of structure and appearance, with the influence of human as well as natural diversity. Varieties grown for fiber are typically grown to retain tall, unbranched, fibrous, and a high proportion of stem-flower material.
These plants grown for fiber and seed are often called hemp. However, for the pleasurable feature, people especially use the flowers of female plants, this type of cannabis plant is called “drug plants” and is selected with the aim of producing a higher proportion of flowers and they are bred for this purpose. In the Western world, CBD fiber hemp is the main cannabinoid found in floral tissue. The CBD concentration in dry flower tissue should be 2% by weight or less. However, the presence of THC is effective in cannabis grown for pharmaceutical purposes.
The THC content of plant tissues in proprietary varieties exceeds 20% by weight. There is no clear natural relationship between fiber properties and the cannabinoid content, there are only varieties in which exceptions occur. The recreational market demands that only varieties containing psychoactive chemicals be grown. Research on the genetic control of cannabinoid biosynthesis started in the Netherlands in the 1990s and then continued in the UK.
The findings of this research program were discussed by the researchers. As a source of CBD, dried flowers of the fiber hemp type contain about 2% CBD. The first genotype hemp plant developed by GW pharmaceutical company is of Turkish origin and contains 4.5% CBD. With the breeding studies carried out in 1998, a variety containing approximately 7% CBD was developed and this variety is used for the production of the Sativex® drug.
Materials that are bred in GW and produce CBD for Epidiolex® have a cannabinoid concentration similar to the strongest THC varieties, with a double-check material containing over 20% CBD. Alleles claimed to control THC or CBD synthesis are codominant. Consequently, a local variety developed by traditional breeding methods should consist of a homozygous population.
Plants that grow from a variety dominant in terms of THC or CBD (THC or CBD chemotype) consist of a heterozygous “mixed chemotype” population that synthesizes both THC and CBD in a more balanced way. The fact that CBD is the predominant cannabinoid in fiber hemp in the West is a result of plant breeding studies and local policies. Fiber hemp cultivation licenses in Europe allow growers to use only varieties that cannot produce more than 0.2% THC. In Canada, this limit is 0.3%.
In contrast, recreational users increasingly prefer seeds and clones that can produce plants with psychoactive effects. As seen in both studies, conventional resin still contains a more balanced ratio of THC and CBD. Most of these varieties are obtained by conventional methods from natural plant populations, and plants used for cannabis production are used to select plants based on the amount of resin produced, not just the THC content.
Until recently, commercial purchase of seeds of varieties capable of producing significant amounts of CBD was impossible and prohibited; When seeds of 52 varieties of pharmaceutical type are planted, 97% of the plants produced are in THC chemotherapy, while the remaining 3% have a mixed THC-CBD profile. A single CBD chemotype seedling did not develop. More recently, seeds with the CBD chemotype have also been made available. It has been reported that those developed by GW Pharmaceuticals and grown in England for research purposes are THC chemotypes.
Dry flower tissue containing over 25% total cannabinoids of a variety recently developed in GW was produced. This genotype is the best THC-containing chemotype available today. However, while the purity level of THC in the cannabinoid profile of the THC chemotype can reach 98%, it has been observed that the purity of CBD is lower (85-90%). All plants with CBD chemotype have some THC at a CBD: THC content of about 25: 1. These plants are often described in the literature as “high CBD low THC” plants.
It appears that this THC content is difficult to completely eliminate by conventional plant breeding. As a result of the breeding program, the pharmaceutical company GW now has a collection of chemotypes dominated by any of the eight cannabinoids. CBD’s purity levels of 71% have been reported in the flower material of a genotype, but it has also been reported that purity levels have been increased to 84% with further breeding studies. GW firm, which emphasizes the use of CBD as a drug for the treatment of epilepsy, continues its research on this subject.
Best Cannabis Growing Supplies That You Can Buy Online
- Govee Temperature Humidity Monitor 2-Pack, Indoor Room Thermometer Hygrometer with App Alert, Mini Bluetooth Digital Thermometer Humidity Sensor with Data Storage for Home, Greenhouse, Cellar
- HiGrade Analyzing Scope – Instant Mobile Testing Kit – Accurate Potency Test Kit – Includes: 1 HiGrade Scope, 1 Year HiGrade Pro App Subscription – Cultivation Assistance – for Home Growers
- AtoBaby Soil Moisture Meter for Potted Plants, 3 in 1 Soil Ph Test Kit with Moisture/Ph/Light Tester, Soil Water Meter for Indoor/Outdoor Plants, Support Garden, Lawn, Farm Soil Tester
- iPower GLTENTXS3 Hydroponic Water-Resistant Tent Tool Bag and Floor Tray Light and Indoor Plant Growing, 32″ x 32″ x 63″, black and silver, Grow Tent – 32″ x 32″ x 63″